In mangrove restoration, bespoke solutions trump one-size-fits-all approach

11 mins read
  • The lack of mangrove forests worldwide is slowing, besides in Asia, the place there’s been a large improve in deforestation over the previous 30 years.
  • Previous mangrove restoration initiatives have proved unsustainable over the long run resulting from a concentrate on planting “in the wrong place, the wrong species, the wrong density.”
  • A brand new approach, known as ecological mangrove restoration (EMR), accounts for an space’s altered hydrology and encourages pure restoration, leading to higher survival charges, sooner progress, and a extra numerous, resilient forest.
  • Proponents say restoration initiatives have to be supported by strong authorized frameworks that defend mangroves throughout nationwide jurisdictions if they’re to achieve success over the long run.

The huge tangled mangrove forests that sweep alongside so many tropical coasts are one of many world’s most biodiverse ecosystems. They additionally play essential roles in defending coastlines from erosion and offering communities with assets from meals to firewood, and are one in every of our best carbon sinks.

Yet they proceed to be destroyed and degraded. In their Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) for 2020, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated the lack of 1.04 million hectares (2.57 million acres) during the last 30 years. However, there’s some trigger for some optimism. According to figures from the FRA, the speed of worldwide mangrove loss has greater than halved over three many years, from 46,700 ha (115,400 acres) of loss per 12 months between 1990 and 2000, to 21,200 ha (52,400 acres) per 12 months between 2010 and 2020.

However, not all areas have skilled a discount in mangrove deforestation. The FRA discovered that in Asia, there was an enormous improve in mangrove loss: from 1,030 ha (2,550 acres) per 12 months to 38,200 ha (94,400 acres) over the identical 30-year interval.

Now conservationists hope {that a} course of known as ecological mangrove restoration (EMR), which is proving much more profitable at restoring these forests than earlier well-intended however usually ill-conceived efforts, will assist flip the tide as soon as and for all within the battle to avoid wasting the mangrove.

Spurred mangrove (Ceriops tagal) seedlings await planting at Watamu, Kenya. Image from Shutterstock through IUCN.

Vanishing blue forests

There are about 70 species of mangroves, with the best biodiversity in Asia, adopted by Brazil, Australia, Nigeria and Mexico. They develop from the land towards the ocean, and inhabit an intertidal zone the place a singular filtration system makes them one of many few vegetation that may survive in brackish or salty water.

Because of their proximity to water, mangroves are sometimes known as “blue forests.” Their plenty of roots prolong above and beneath the water line, serving to to gradual the motion of water, stabilize coastlines and cut back the impacts of waves and storm surges. They additionally function essential nursuries for an enormous array of fish, in addition to habitat for a spread of animals from hippos (Hippopotamus amphibiusand dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Tanzania, to the Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii) in Senegal. In Panama, pygmy sloths (Bradypus pygmaeus) clamber by the cover, whereas Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) patrol the swamps of the Sundarbans in India and Bangladesh. Everywhere, the forests entice enormous flocks of birds.

A Bengal tiger surveys its domain in the Sundarbans mangrove. Image by Soumyajit Nandy via WIkimedia Commons (CC 4.0)
A Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) surveys its area within the Sundarbans mangrove. Image by Soumyajit Nandy through Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0)

Through photosynthesis, mangroves soak up enormous quantities of carbon. Research signifies a hectare of mangrove can lock away four times more carbon than the identical space of tropical rainforest.

Only seagrass meadows and mudflats are more practical at sequestering carbon, each of which even have fascinating symbiotic relationships with mangroves. While they assist to cut back the facility of waves crashing into the mangroves, the mangroves reciprocate by  serving to to guard these offshore habitats from being smothered by silt and different runoff from the land.

Wetlands International (WI) is likely one of the key champions of EMR, working initiatives throughout Asia and Africa. Its Mangrove Capital Africa initiative is restoring giant mangrove deltas throughout that continent, together with the Rufiji Delta in Tanzania, and Senegal’s Saloum Delta, the biggest mangrove deltas in East and West Africa, respectively. Hundreds of 1000’s of individuals rely immediately on these forests for assets corresponding to constructing supplies, fish and oysters, and firewood, says WI technical officer Menno de Boer.

“In both sites, we work with the communities and local government to protect and restore mangroves, and help them to adopt sustainable approaches to mangrove resource use,” stated de Boer, who works on WI’s deltas and coasts crew. This consists of utilizing information and the most recent applied sciences to determine the place mangroves are disappearing, and permitting patrols to raised goal their efforts.

Mangrove reforestation project in Tanzania. Image by Léa Badoz/IUCN.
Mangrove reforestation mission in Tanzania. Image by Léa Badoz/IUCN.

“Threats in these deltas come from several sides,” he says. “Mangroves are being cut for firewood [and construction] and to make space for farming. On top of that, upstream developments [such as the Stiegler dam in Tanzania] threaten the freshwater and sediment flow, which is essential for the mangrove ecosystem.”

Other threats to mangroves worldwide embrace oil spills, as was seen earlier this 12 months when the MV Wakashio bulk provider sank off Mauritius, leaking gasoline oil that devastated the country’s mangroves. Elsewhere, mangroves are being cleared to make manner for aquaculture, one of many world’s fastest-growing meals sectors, in addition to for oil palm plantations and rice paddies. They are additionally being cleared for homes and resorts, developments which can be associated with pollution.

Wetlands International first trialed EMR in Guinea-Bissau’s Cacheu River Mangroves Natural Park in 2015. “It’s an approach that came up due to all the failing projects,” de Boer says. “Many projects that try to restore mangroves through just planting are not effective … they plant in the wrong place, the wrong species, the wrong density.”

While a gnarled forest of mangroves might look powerful and resilient, completely different species want completely different situations to thrive. Many have advanced particular adaptions that make them suited to very particular environments, ruled by components corresponding to salinity and sediment circulate. Some mangroves, for example, soak up oxygen by roots that develop out of the soil, and which will be smothered by an excessive amount of sediment.

Aboveground mangrove roots are also called "knees." Image by Everglades NPS.
Aboveground mangrove roots are additionally known as “knees.” Image by Everglades NPS.

De Boer attributes the breakdown of many restoration initiatives to a scarcity of planning and a choice for species which can be straightforward to plant over native species that will do higher in the long run. Some mangroves produce viviparous seeds known as propagules, which mature on the tree earlier than they drop off. They can then be planted by merely pushing them straight into the mud. De Boer says that due to this, they grew to become well-liked with planting schemes run by NGOs and personal organizations; however these efforts didn’t keep in mind the suitability of a species to a sure website, and because of this failed to revive functioning, self-sustaining forest.

Governments have usually been a part of the issue too, de Boer says, usually urgent forward with planting packages to satisfy targets however with out ever actually contemplating the outcomes.

Rethinking reforestation

Rather than merely planting 1000’s of mangroves within the hope that they may develop, EMR appears on the environmental situations, and takes under consideration components than have modified the hydrology of an space, corresponding to fish ponds or rice paddies. It additionally encourages pure restoration, opening up deltas and permitting site-specific species to take maintain, leading to higher survival charges, sooner progress, and a extra numerous, resilient forest.

In Guinea-Bissau, the hydrology of an space focused for restoration had been disturbed by dikes and now-abandoned rice fields, which had been stopping any tidal affect. Initial replanting efforts additionally used the incorrect sort of mangrove species. But as soon as the dikes had been damaged, seeds from a distinct species had been introduced in on the tide and the forest began to develop again by itself. It was merely a case of letting nature take over, de Boer says. Not planting really proved extra profitable, extra environment friendly and less expensive.


Charlene is a Bay Area journalist who hails from the small community of Fresno. Drawing from her experience writing for her college paper, Charlene continues to advocate for free press and local journalism. She also volunteers in all the beach cleanups she can because she loves the water.

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